Viagra Initial Use

Fleming had inadvertently stumbled across the first antibiotic , which he called penicillin. For his accidental discovery, he shared the Nobel prize for medicine in with Florey and Chain, Oxford chemists who perfected the process of penicillin mass production in time to treat infected battlefield injuries sustained in the second world war. While trying to build a device to record heartbeats in , he accidentally installed the wrong type of resistor into his prototype — which promptly began to emit regular electrical pulses.

Realising these pulses were recapitulating the electrical activity of a normal heartbeat, Greatbatch immediately saw the potential of his device. After two years of refinements, his design for a pacemaker that could be implanted into the heart was patented in and soon went into production.

Life-saving descendants of this first device now improve the lives of over half a million patients with slow heartbeats every year. In the s, two Australian doctors were ridiculed for suggesting that stomach ulcers were caused not by business lunches and stress, but by infection with a common bacteria.

Barry Marshall, a gastroenterologist and his pathologist colleague in Perth, Robin Warren, noticed that stomach biopsies taken from their ulcer patients all contained the same spiral-shaped bacteria, called Helicobacter pylori. The potent passion pill was originally designed to ease physical troubles of a different kind, not to do the lusty job it gives millions of men a lift with now. It all started in , when Pfizer chemists Albert Wood yes, that's his real last name and Peter Dunn developed a drug called sildenafil citrate.

They thought it would be helpful in lowering high blood pressure and treating angina. In the early s, Pfizer began clinical trials in Britain for the drug, which by then it had named Viagra. At first, the experiments seemed like business as usual. Then something strange and unexpected started happening. The test subjects began reporting some very peculiar -- and titillating -- side effects.

Brian Klee told the Agence France-Presse. The researchers knew they were on to something huge. Sensing a revolutionary hit, Pfizer immediately scrapped testing Viagra as a heart medication and pursued it hard and fast as a remedy for erectile dysfunction.

By , tests to see if Viagra could be used to treat erectile dysfunction began. They included some 3, patients, ages 19 to 87 years old. Time and again, in 21 separate trials, it was shown to be effective. Fast forward to , and the New York City-based pharmaceutical giant scored a critical patent for the revolutionary drug. Its next big win in bringing it to market came on March 27, , when the FDA officially approved its use as a treatment for impotency.

From there, the floodgates burst open. Pharmacists across America scrambled to keep up with the consumer demand for the new diamond-shaped doozie. The drug clinched the record for the most prescriptions written during its launch week, according to the Los Angeles Times.

Viagra benefited, as a business venture, from the fact that, just seven months before the pill was approved, the FDA had eased its restrictions on direct-to-consumer medical advertising; as a result, the drug was among the first pharmaceutical products to be publicly advertised.

Pfizer was aware that the public-messaging capability presented both a challenge and an opportunity: Its new product, being what it was, would need to overcome several taboos at once—about sex, certainly, but also about aging and masculinity.

It sent a delegation to the Vatican to test how the pill would be received among Catholic leaders. The company, using its findings, focused its marketing efforts initially on selling Viagra as a medical solution to a medical problem.

It focused its messaging on men with debilitating medical conditions. Pfizer also focused, in its early marketing, on gendered notions of power and patriotism: sexual function as a metaphor for a kind of masculine dignity. Bob Dole, who had, earlier in , appeared on Larry King Live to discuss his own struggles with erectile dysfunction, was recruited to be a spokesman for the new pill.

Seated, in an early commercial , on a blue leather chair situated in a corridor of gleaming white—and clad in a blue suit, white shirt, and red tie—the war veteran and elder statesman functioned, essentially, as a paragon of a certain strain of American masculinity.

Those who battle seriousness illness. He did not talk, however, about Viagra itself. The little blue pill, in all this talk of American heroism, was merely implied. The company, as such, shifted its strategy to target a younger demographic and, in the process, shifted its marketing messages once more. These ads feature suggestive slow-dancing , oceanside frolicking, heterosexual and attractive and mostly white couples in their 40s, 50s, and 60s embracing and laughing and flirting and, one cha-cha at a time, challenging longstanding ideas about what it means to age.

Pfizer also, in its marketing, attempted to reclaim notions of potency from the ideas of impotence it tried to make antiquated. By , nearly , prescriptions for it were being filled each week ; 17 million Americans had used it.

Protease inhibitors inhibit the metabolism of sildenafil, effectively multiplying the plasma levels of sildenafil, increasing the incidence and severity of side effects. Contraindications include: [2] : Sildenafil should not be used if sexual activity is inadvisable due to underlying cardiovascular risk factors [21]. Sildenafil's popularity with young adults has increased over the years.

In one study, a mg dose was shown to cause no significant change in erectile quality, but did reduce the postejaculatory refractory time. Unprescribed recreational use of sildenafil and other PDE5 inhibitors is noted as particularly high among users of illegal drugs. Agostino, Santiago A.

Plano, and Diego A. Golombek of Universidad Nacional de Quilmes , Argentina, for their discovery that sildenafil helps treat jet lag recovery in hamsters. Professional athletes have been documented using sildenafil, believing the opening of their blood vessels will enrich their muscles.

In turn, they believe it will enhance their performances. Acetildenafil and other synthetic structural analogs of sildenafil which are PDE5 inhibitors have been found as adulterants in a number of "herbal" aphrodisiac products sold over-the-counter. However, at least one court case has resulted in a product being taken off the market. The US FDA has banned numerous products claiming to be Eurycoma longifolia that, in fact, contain only analogs of sildenafil. Nitric oxide NO in the corpus cavernosum of the penis binds to guanylate cyclase receptors, which results in increased levels of cGMP, leading to smooth muscle relaxation vasodilation of the intimal cushions of the helicine arteries.

This smooth muscle relaxation leads to vasodilation and increased inflow of blood into the spongy tissue of the penis, causing an erection. Furchgott , Ferid Murad , and Louis Ignarro won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in for their independent study of the metabolic pathway of nitric oxide in smooth muscle vasodilation.

This kinase is activated by cGMP and it phosphorylates multiple targets in the smooth muscle cells, namely myosin light chain phosphatase , RhoA , IP3 receptor , phospholipase C , and others. The molecular structure of sildenafil is similar to that of cGMP and acts as a competitive binding agent of PDE5 in the corpus cavernosum, resulting in more cGMP and better erections.

Other drugs that operate by the same mechanism include tadalafil Cialis and vardenafil Levitra. Sildenafil is broken down in the liver by hepatic metabolism using cytochrome p enzymes, mainly CYP 3A4 major route , but also by CYP2C9 minor route hepatic isoenzymes.

The major product of metabolisation by these enzymes is N-desmethylated sildenafil, which is metabolised further. If taken with a high-fat meal, absorption is reduced; the time taken to reach the maximum plasma concentration increases by around one hour, and the maximum concentration itself is decreased by nearly one-third.

There are also mouth spray preparations of sildenafil for faster onset of action. The preparation steps for synthesis of sildenafil are: [44]. Sildenafil compound UK, was synthesized by a group of pharmaceutical chemists working at Pfizer's Sandwich, Kent , research facility in England. It was initially studied for use in hypertension high blood pressure and angina pectoris a symptom of ischaemic heart disease. The first clinical trials were conducted in Morriston Hospital in Swansea.

Numerous sites on the Internet offer Viagra for sale after an "online consultation", often a simple web questionnaire. Viagra is also informally known as "vitamin V", "the blue pill", or "blue diamond", as well as various other nicknames. In February , it was announced that Boots , the UK pharmacy chain, would try over-the-counter sales of Viagra in stores in Manchester , England. Men between the ages of 30 and 65 would be eligible to buy four tablets after a consultation with a pharmacist.

While the sale remains subject to a consultation with a pharmacist, the other restrictions from the trial have been removed, allowing customers over the age of 18 to purchase an unlimited number of pills [62] The decision was made, in part, to reduce online sales of counterfeit and potentially dangerous erectile dysfunction treatments. On 6 May , Pfizer , which manufactures Viagra, told The Associated Press they will begin selling the drug directly to patients on its website.

Pfizer's patents on Viagra expired outside the US in ; in the US they were set to expire, but Pfizer settled litigation with each of Mylan and Teva which agreed that both companies could introduce generics in the US on 11 December As of , the U.

Food and Drug Administration has approved 15 drug manufacturers to market generic sildenafil in the United States. Seven of these companies are based in India. This is likely to lead to dramatic price reductions. Counterfeit Viagra, despite generally being cheaper, [70] can contain harmful substances or substances that affect how Viagra works, such as blue printer ink, amphetamines , metronidazole , boric acid , and rat poison.

Viagra is one of the world's most counterfeited medicines. There were 2,, prescriptions for Sildenafil in in England, compared with 1,, in In , Viagra Connect, a particular formulation of Sildenafil marketed by Pfizer, became available for sale without a prescription in the UK, [62] in an attempt to widen availability and reduce demand for counterfeit products.

Sildenafil is available as a generic drug in the United States, labelled for pulmonary arterial hypertension. In the United States, Pfizer received two patents for sildenafil: one for its indication to treat cardiovascular disease marketed as Revatio and another for its indication to treat erectile dysfunction marketed as Viagra. The substance is the same under both trade names.

In , Pfizer filed a patent covering the substance sildenafil and its use to treat cardiovascular diseases. The patent was published in and expired in The patent on Revatio indicated for pulmonary arterial hypertension rather than erectile dysfunction expired in late Generic versions of this low-dose form of sildenafil have been available in the U.

In , Pfizer filed a patent covering the use of sildenafil to treat erectile dysfunction. This patent was published in and will expire in Teva sued to have the latter patent invalidated, but Pfizer prevailed in an August federal district court case.

In Canada , Pfizer's patent 2,, for Revatio sildenafil used to treat pulmonary hypertension was found invalid by the Federal Court in June , on an application by Ratiopharm Inc. On 8 November , the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that Pfizer's patent 2,, on Viagra was invalid from the beginning because the company did not provide full disclosure in its application.

The decision, Teva Canada Ltd. Pfizer Canada Inc. It added further: "As a matter of policy and sound statutory interpretation, patentees cannot be allowed to 'game' the system in this way. This, in my view, is the key issue in this appeal. Manufacture and sale of sildenafil citrate drugs known as "generic Viagra" is common in India , where Pfizer's patent claim does not apply. Manufacture and sale of sildenafil citrate drugs is common in China , where Pfizer's patent claim is not widely enforced.

Sildenafil was reclassified in New Zealand in so it could be bought over the counter from a pharmacist. It is thought that this reduced sales over the Internet and was safer as men could be referred for medical advice if appropriate. Egypt approved Viagra for sale in , but soon afterwards allowed local companies to produce generic versions of the drug, citing the interests of poor people who would not be able to afford Pfizer's price.

Pfizer's patent on sildenafil citrate expired in Brazil in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Viagra disambiguation. IUPAC name. Interactive image. Further information: Counterfeit medications.

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Full Prescribing Information". Pfizer Labs. Division of Pfizer, Inc. Retrieved 5 November Retrieved 1 December Sexual Medicine Reviews. Retrieved 21 November CBS News. Retrieved 24 November Follow Suit?

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Respiratory Medicine. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. PDE-5 inhibitors appear to have significant but moderate efficacy in secondary [Raynaud's phenomenon].

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors e. Commonly-used classes of drugs". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 22 October Drug Safety.

The American Journal of Cardiology. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Retrieved 11 July USA Today. J Am Pharm Assoc Retrieved 15 July Drug Alcohol Rev. J Fam Pract. Improbable Research. Retrieved 10 February Daily News. Retrieved 28 November Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis.

Forensic Science International. Archived from the original PDF on 10 September You may take it up to 4 hours before sexual activity. Do not take Viagra more than once per day. Viagra can help you have an erection when sexual stimulation occurs. An erection will not occur just by taking a pill. Follow your doctor's instructions. During sexual activity, if you become dizzy or nauseated, or have pain, numbness, or tingling in your chest, arms, neck, or jaw, stop and call your doctor right away. You could be having a serious side effect of sildenafil.

Viagra dosage information in more detail. Grapefruit and grapefruit juice may interact with sildenafil and lead to unwanted side effects. Avoid the use of grapefruit products while taking sildenafil. Avoid using any other medicines to treat impotence, such as alprostadil or yohimbine, without first talking to your doctor. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to Viagra: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. Viagra side effects in more detail. Do not take Viagra with similar medications such as avanafil Stendra , tadalafil Cialis or vardenafil Levitra. Tell your doctor about all other medications you use for erectile dysfunction. This list is not complete. Other drugs may interact with sildenafil, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products.

Not all possible interactions are listed in this medication guide. Viagra drug interactions in more detail. Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use Viagra only for the indication prescribed. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Other brands: Revatio. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. Available for Android and iOS devices. Subscribe to Drugs. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information - verify here. Skip to Content. See also: Viagra dosage information in more detail. See also: Viagra side effects in more detail. See also: Viagra drug interactions in more detail. Drug Status Rx. Availability Prescription only. Approval History FDA approved Drug Class.

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